Welcome to EBible Fellowship’s Bible study in the Book of Genesis. This is study #8 of Genesis, chapter 10 and we are going to read Genesis 10:11-12:
Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah, And Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city.
We were looking at the Assyrians, as “Asshur” is the same Hebrew word as “Assyria” and Nineveh was the capital of Assyria. In our last study, we were looking at Isaiah, chapter 37 and we were reading about the army of the Assyrians that had encamped around Jerusalem. The spiritual picture depicted Satan overcoming the nations and the corporate churches and then he went too far by coming against God’s elect. When the Assyrians came against Hezekiah and Jerusalem, it is a picture of coming against Christ and His elect. It is a portrait of Jerusalem above. God allowed the Assyrians to destroy Samaria or the 10 tribes in the North, just as He would allow the Babylonians to later come against Judah and Jerusalem, another picture of Satan coming against the corporate churches. But, in this case in Isaiah 37, Jerusalem is a picture of the elect and Satan’s attempt to come against the spiritual city of the elect. God repeatedly emphasizes that His people cannot be “cut off” from that city. God says in Isaiah 37:35-36:
For I will defend this city to save it for mine own sake, and for my servant David's sake. Then the angel of JEHOVAH went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred and fourscore and five thousand: and when they arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses.
This was a huge host that had encamped round about Jerusalem. It would have been frightening for the inhabitants of that city. How could they do battle against this huge army that had won all their previous fights? And, yet, God defended the city and fought against the Assyrians. It was just like when Jehoshaphat took his army by the watchtower in the wilderness to go out against the huge enemy army that was coming against them. They had no need to fight in that battle because the enemy army destroyed one another. Likewise, the inhabitants of Jerusalem did not shoot an arrow or cast a spear and, yet, they won a glorious victory over the enemy. God smote 185,000 Assyrians. How did they die? We are not told. They could have died of a plague or disease that spread overnight from tent to tent. When we read of historical plagues and diseases in the world, it can take time for plagues to spread and destroy thousands of people – it does not happen overnight. It was the hand of God as He intervened in human affairs for the benefit and protection of His people.
With that number of “185,000” we can see what is in view. First, the number “185,000” breaks down to “10 x 10 x 10 x 5 x 37.” These are all significant numbers, spiritually. The number “10” to the third power indicates the complete purpose of God to bring judgment against the enemies of God and His people. This is a picture of God’s wrath being poured out upon the wicked in the Day of Judgment. The number “5” identifies with atonement and we can see both aspects of the atonement here. There is a positive aspect for the inhabitants of Jerusalem and they were delivered by the atoning work of Christ at the foundation of the world. That is the picture, but, historically, all the inhabitants of Jerusalem were not saved. There could have been just a handful of true believers, but the “atonement” worked for their good. On the other hand, the unsaved were typified by the king of Assyria and his army, a picture of Satan and the unsaved of the world. In their day of atonement, they must pay for their own sins which will result in their ultimate destruction. The number “37” identifies with judgment, so it is a picture of Judgment Day when God fights the battle and is victorious over the enemy. The enemy is utterly destroyed and the people of God have no need to fight in that battle.
Now we are going to go back to Genesis, chapter 10 and continue reading. It says in Genesis 10:13-14:
And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (out of whom came Philistim,) and Caphtorim.
Here, we find another son of Ham whose name was “Mizraim.” Remember, the Hebrew word for “Mizraim” is translated in a well-known way other than “Mizraim.” It is the same word seen translated as “Egypt.” We could read it as “Egypt begat Ludim.” Again, these kinds of statements in the genealogies are helpful to us in learning background information about nations like Egypt that we read about again, and again, in the Bible.
The word “Ludim” is Strong’s #3866 and it is the same word translated as “Lydia” or “Lydians.” It says in Jeremiah 46:8-9:
Egypt riseth up like a flood, and his waters are moved like the rivers; and he saith, I will go up, and will cover the earth; I will destroy the city and the inhabitants thereof. Come up, ye horses; and rage, ye chariots; and let the mighty men come forth; the Ethiopians and the Libyans, that handle the shield; and the Lydians, that handle and bend the bow.
As God discusses “Egypt” or “Mizraim,” He mentions the Lydians and that is because Mizraim begat “Ludim.”? Also, in Ezekiel, chapter 30 we read of “Lydia,” which is a related word. It is Strong’s #3865. It says in Ezekiel 30:4-5:
And the sword shall come upon Egypt, and great pain shall be in Ethiopia, when the slain shall fall in Egypt, and they shall take away her multitude, and her foundations shall be broken down. Ethiopia, and Libya, and Lydia, and all the mingled people…
We find Lydia and Ludim mentioned in association with Egypt because they are descendants of Egypt.
It goes on to say in Genesis 10:13:
… and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim…
I was not able to find anything on the word “Anamim,” but the word “Lehabim” is Strong’s #3853 and the plural is Strong’s #3851, which is translated as “flames.” The word Naphtuhim is Strong’s #5320 and it is similar to the word Naphtali, which means “wrestling.” The word “Naphtuhim” is related, but I do not think we can say it means “wrestling,” so we do not have much insight into these words.
As we go along, we will find that when the Lord lists descendants, some of them really stand out, but some of them are rarely mentioned and we are not able to learn much about them. I do not know why God does that, but our ability to learn is limited when an individual or nation is mentioned just one time.
Then it goes on to say in Genesis 10:14:
And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (out of whom came Philistim,) and Caphtorim.
The name “Pathrusim” is Strong’s #6625 and it is a related word to Strong’s #6624. We are little bit more familiar with this word. It is found in Isaiah 11:11:
And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea.
The word translated as “Pathros” is from the related word, Strong’s #6624 and we can see its association with many of the places we have been reading about in Genesis, chapter 10.
Then it says, in Genesis 10:14:
… and Casluhim, (out of whom came Philistim,) and Caphtorim.
The name “Casluhim” is also mentioned in 1Chronicles 1:11:
And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (of whom came the Philistines,) and Caphthorim.
So, this gives us confirmation that “Philistim” is the same as the “Philistines.” So, the reference to “Casluhim” ties in with the Philistines. Also, the name “Caphthorim” is Strong’s #3732 and a related word, Strong’s #3731, is found in Amos 9:7:
Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me, O children of Israel? saith JEHOVAH. Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt? and the Philistines from Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir?
In all likelihood, “Caphtor” is the same as “Caphthorim.”
We do find that there is a family relationship between Egypt and the Philistines. We know that when the Israelites were delivered out of Egypt, they went into the land of Canaan and their foes were the Philistines that dwelt in that land.
Let us go on, in Genesis 10:15-20:
And Canaan begat Sidon his firstborn, and Heth, And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgasite, And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite: and afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad. And the border of the Canaanites was from Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest, unto Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboim, even unto Lasha. These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their countries, and in their nations.
At this point the Lord is going to go into the family line of Canaan. Canaan was a son of Ham. After Ham failed to cover the nakedness of his father Noah, it was Canaan that was cursed. The land of Canaan plays a major role in Old Testament Biblical history, as well as in the New Testament. It says in Genesis 11:31:
And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran his son's son, and Sarai his daughter in law, his son Abram's wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came unto Haran, and dwelt there.
Here, when Abram left Ur of the Chaldees to enter the land of Canaan, he was seventy-five years old. We know he was born in 2167BC, so seventy-five years later would be 2092BC, which is 2898 years from the flood in 4990BC, so a lot of time passes as we go from Genesis 10 to Genesis 11, with the tower of Babel and the division of the continents in the day of Peleg. It was over 2,800 years. Canaan is a son of Ham and we do not know the exact time when he was born, but as far as his descendants it would have been under three millenniums when they had become established in the land of Canaan. After Israel went into Egypt and were captives for a time, then God delivered them and gave them the land of Canaan. They took over the land and conquered the Canaanites. We will recognize some of the nations of the land of Canaan in the names of the sons that are mentioned in Genesis, chapter 10.
Again, it says in Genesis 10:15:
And Canaan begat Sidon his firstborn…
Canaan begat Sidon and it is the same Hebrew word translated as “Zidon.” When we read of Tyre and Sidon, it is the same place and the same name as Sidon. It says in Ezekiel 27:8:
The inhabitants of Zidon and Arvad were thy mariners: thy wise men, O Tyrus, that were in thee, were thy pilots.
We find “Arvadite” in Genesis 10:18:
And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite…
We see the relationship between Arvad and the Sidonians. They are both sons of Canaan.
Also, in Genesis, chapter 49, Jacob was moved by God to say Genesis 49:13:
Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea; and he shall be for an haven of ships; and his border shall be unto Zidon.
We see that Zidon is related to a coastal area and that is why we read of the ships of Tarshish in relationship to Tyre and Zidon, the merchant cities.
Again, it says in Genesis 10:15:
And Canaan begat Sidon his firstborn, and Heth…
Heth is familiar to us because it was the sons of Heth that sold Abraham a piece of ground in which to bury his wife Sarah, in Genesis 23:2-3:
And Sarah died in Kirjatharba; the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan: and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her. And Abraham stood up from before his dead, and spake unto the sons of Heth…
Then it says in Genesis 23:17-20:
And the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the field, and the cave which was therein, and all the trees that were in the field, that were in all the borders round about, were made sure Unto Abraham for a possession in the presence of the children of Heth, before all that went in at the gate of his city. And after this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of the field of Machpelah before Mamre: the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan. And the field, and the cave that is therein, were made sure unto Abraham for a possession of a buryingplace by the sons of Heth.
Then in Genesis, chapter 27 Rebecca was moved to say, in Genesis 27:46:
And Rebekah said to Isaac, I am weary of my life because of the daughters of Heth: if Jacob take a wife of the daughters of Heth, such as these which are of the daughters of the land, what good shall my life do me?
Jacob’s mother was concerned that Jacob might become “unequally yoked.” In the Bible, this means that a true believer marries a person of the world and the daughters of Heth represent the unsaved of the world. That is why she refers to the daughters of Heth as “the daughters of the land” and the word for “land” can be translated as “world.” They are the daughters of the (unsaved) world.
Abraham’s purchase of a burying site (which is all the land he ever owned in this world) represents the portion of the earth in which the people of God are buried until the time of the resurrection. God promised to give the (spiritual) land of Canaan to the believers and this is a picture of God’s people inheriting the earth. Some day we will not just be sojourners in the earth, but we will own the earth when God creates the new earth.
So, the man Canaan can be a picture of the world, as well as a picture of the corporate church. His son Heth can also represent the “daughters of the earth,” the unsaved inhabitants of the earth.